Opisthorchiasis — this is a fairly common parasitic disease in which the lesion of the hepatobiliary system. It is caused by flatworms belonging to the class Trematoda. Most often, this pathology is diagnosed in men at the age from fifteen to fifty years.
Pathogens of opisthorchiasis can be two types of flatworms: Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Among the Russian population mostly causes opisthorchiasis Opisthorchis felineus. This microorganism is small in size and lanceolate shape. In order to be fixed on the surface, this specific parasite has two suckers: oral and ventral. Their first intermediate hosts are molluscs, and the second — freshwater fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae. Inside of fish body, these parasites undergo a number of modifications that allow them to trigger the development of the pathological process within the body of the definitive host. Definitive hosts may be any mammals that eat fish, such as man, cat, dog. Infection with opisthorchiasis happens through the alimentary way, namely through the fish, held insufficient treatment. After penetration into the human body, the pathogen gets inside the gallbladder and liver. In hundred percent cases it can be detected in the intrahepatic bile ducts. In a slightly smaller number it is right in the heart of the gall bladder and ducts within the pancreas. Inside the human body it feeds on epithelial and erythrocyte cells, mucous substance.
Opisthorchiasis can develop in two forms, depending on your flow: acute and chronic. The mechanism of development of acute forms of the disease consist in the occurrence of allergic reactions and immune response to toxins released by parasites. All of this leads to disruption of the microcirculation of blood in small vascular structures and to an increase in swelling around them. The chronic course of this pathological process is characterized by changing periods of exacerbation and remission. The mechanism of development of this pathology is the occurrence of allergic reactions to secreted toxic substances. However, the clinical picture in this case has a much more moderate manifestations.
It is worth noting that acute opisthorchiasis in adults can occur in four varieties: hipopotamo, hepatocholangiocarcinoma, gastroenterokoliticheskaya and respiratory. When hipopotamo varieties in first place in the clinical picture leaves the intoxication syndrome with marked disturbance of the General condition. In addition, this species is characterized by the presence of skin allergic manifestations. For hepatocholangiocarcinoma species typical enlargement of the liver, and in some cases, and spleen in size. Sure there is pain and a feeling of nausea. Gastroenterokoliticheskaya kind accompanied by various disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. With respiratory varieties of present symptoms such as runny nose, redness of the oropharynx, coughing, shortness of breath and so on.
Chronic opisthorchiasis is much less pronounced symptoms. However, it may lead to various morphological changes in the wall of the gallbladder and its ducts. In chronic opisthorchiasis person experiences weakness and malaise. Generates various allergic rashes on the surface of the skin, accompanied by severe itching. May be present increased sensitivity to ultraviolet rays. Marked increases in body temperature to subfebrile values, as well as muscle and joint pain. Often there are dyspeptic symptoms and weight loss. Chronic opisthorchiasis is always accompanied by pain syndrome. However, the pain may be short-term and may always be present.
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